China's wind power development can learn from Europe
Human application of wind energy can be traced back to 5000 years ago, the ancient egyptians used ship sails to drive the Nile river, in 200 BC, the Chinese wind turbines carry water irrigation, the persians with vertical axis wind turbines mill.In Europe, Denmark is the earliest use of wind power, in 1891, Danish physicist PoulLaCour and his student team design creates a modern sense of the wind turbines, electrolytic students to do experiments with hydrogen and lighting.PoulLaCour in order to solve the problem of the power output, then developed a regulator.A stable output of wind power station built in 1895, for the use of a call Askovde village, laid the rudiment of modern wind power technology and application of a classic.
In 1940, during world war ii appeared two of the largest 1.25 MW wind turbine blades Grandpa ` sKnob, give a regional power grid power supply.Later danes put forward a landmark of the whole machine structure, the so-called "Danish concept (DanishConcept)", at a fixed blade, squirrel cage induction generator, direct networking, fixed speed control, main bearing, shaft, gear box for technology.The Danish concept in the development of wind power has played a pioneering role in the process, for future advanced yaw, variable propeller, speed, doubly-fed induction generator technical route laid the foundation.In the 1970 s, when oil prices and oil embargo happened due to the international political disputes, in Europe to reappear a flood of wind power technology development, the government and enterprises to support various research projects related to wind power technology.
This period can be considered to be the European wind power first big development stage.Then, Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, UK and other policies, promote the industrialization and marketization of wind turbines, developed including single blade and double blade, three blades and vertical shaft of wind turbines.In the early 1990 s has made a single capacity of 3 mw, double blade and hydraulic variable propeller wind turbines - AerolusII, after its installation operation for 17 years, was scrapped after accomplished the historical mission in 2008.AerolusII herald to success in the research and development of large wind turbines is feasible.After the units, the development of high power wind turbines appeared failure, make the engineers to realize technology risk and economic costs of large wind turbines.At the same time, the previous single blade, double blade technique route and compared three blades also showed that the technology is not enough, so in the mid 90 s gradually formed with three blade design for the mainstream of technical route, stand-alone power also beginning from 300 kw, 400 kw, growing to 600 kw and 750 kw, etc.
Improvement in doubly-fed induction wind turbines, unit power, increasing market share of basic unify the whole country at the same time, the germans with its never easily follow character, successfully developed the direct drive wind turbines, Enercon and Vensys direct-drive technology concept of the two German companies leading the international wind power market in 25% to 30% today.Nearly 15 years, wind energy can say in addition to the computer and communications industry is one of the fastest growing technology industry, in "doubly-fed" and "direct-drive" two kind of technical solution for onshore wind power under the premise of the mainstream market, facing the sea wind, some innovative concepts and technical scheme of the technical problem to deal with offshore wind, such as medium speed transmission concept (HybriDrive, FusionDrive), high speed permanent magnet concept, SCD (SuperCompactDrive) design, etc.Unit power is becoming more and more close to 10 mw, the most representative such as Vestas V164-8 mw doubly-fed scheme, impeller diameter of 164 meters, 8 mw power, is the world's largest plant;Enercon E126-7.5 MW is representative of the straight drive scheme;And MingYang wind SCD6.5 MW - 145 is concentrated speed driving and compact design, which integrates the most advanced innovative solutions.
For more than 100 years, the Danish people with enthusiasm for wind energy and persistence, at different times for wind energy contribution to the wisdom of creative technology, developed wind power leader like Vestas, etc.Germans, with its strong industrial base, exquisite technical process, rigorous scientific attitude of dedication, respect nature and respect the values of life, the wind energy and the industry chain to the modern technology industries, breed like Nordex, REPower, Siemens, Bard, and Multibrid, such as, Kenesys, E.N.O machine suppliers, and there are more than one thousand parts enterprise, form a complete supply chain system, such as Winergy, BoschRexroth, ABB, Siemens, VEM, Beickhoff and so on.In recent years, while Spain, the Netherlands and the UK in wind power equipment manufacturing industry is far from being compared to Germany, but the wind power technology development are also constantly improve and progress, formed by the technical service and wind farm management as the leading service industry.Onshore wind power in Spain and Britain's offshore wind all occupies an important share in the new European capacity.
In wind power technology, grid control and wind farm management ability constantly improve and perfect, at the same time in Europe and the world within the scope of the development of wind power market is not plain sailing, it is closely combined with the international political and economic.After world war ii oil prices is a blow to the industrialization of wind energy exploration, until the 70 s soaring oil prices and political factors lead to the embargo, to stimulate the human's passion for wind energy, until the early 90 s, has the important breakthrough technology, realizing the commercialization.2000 years ago as the period of the wind power technology rapid development, the high power three blades is analyzed.studying yaw and variable-speed units, more than 1.5 MW, European countries have introduced policies to encourage investment, fast time to promote the development of wind power market.Rapid development leads to the imperfect and uncertainty in policies, market supply and demand imbalance, technically immature caused the risk of quality and price.Such as the UK by actively encouraging wind power at the beginning, to the cancellation policy, limit development, Britain's equipment manufacturing companies from wind power market, until today, the large amounts of sea wind turbines demand is still dependent on the machine supplier in Germany and Denmark.
Denmark more than 30 of the whole plant supply capacity is greater than that of domestic market demand, at the same time, the fierce market competition and quality risk loss of part of the whole machine factory survival ability, realize the restructuring and merger, reduced to only a few companies.Germany's wind power policy is a relatively stable, the industry has been benign development, is also Germany to become the main cause of Europe's largest wind power state.Weak before and after the economy of Europe in 2000, the European wind power market in a low state, until the European economy began to recovery after 2004, Tokyo environmental agreement is signed, the strong desire for the green environmental protection and the demand, the structure of the wind power market has been adjusted to complete, in technology to improve and improve, make the wind power industry has been rapid ascension.
At the same time, European countries rushed out a series of incentive policies and measures, prompting market demand rapidly expand, the machine began to can't meet demand and the supply capacity expansion to promote wind power related enterprises to strengthen the investment.Wind power technology during this period the surge, REpower and Enercon successively introduced respectively 5 MW and 4.5 MW, 1.5 M and 2 MW become the market mainstream products.In this round of German wind power industry, especially in the recovery process of supply chain, relying on its strong competitiveness and domestic market demand to grab the international wind power market.By 2008, the capacity expansion of wind power industry was basically completed, meet the needs of the market, but the Copenhagen meeting environmental protection is not successful, let most countries pressure greatly reduced demand for clean energy, plus the us financial crisis of 2009, has knock-on effects on the European economy at the same time, the wind power investment greatly shrink caused by a lot of the planned project is suspended and cancellation, the wind power industry once again into the doldrums, until the second half of 2013, the global wind power warming trend.
The wind power utilization in China from 80 s, but the real mass rapid development or before and after starting from 2004, later than Europe for more than 20 years.China's wind power development speed is amazing, just a few short years time to form the basic complete domestic supply chain system.By introducing the design drawings, process technology and the high quality suppliers, domestic machine factory basic mastered the core of wind power technology, and continuous innovation, gradually formed the independent development ability, exercise and cultivating professional talents of a large number of wind power.China ranked the world's first for the capacity by the end of 2013, become the veritable wind power.On the other hand, rapid development also brings many problems.Market structure imbalance, incomplete infrastructure, industrial chain value distribution is unreasonable, to improve product quality, comprehensive economic efficiency is not high, market development influenced by various factors, etc., have become the current wind power industry healthy and rational development of obstacles.
Review domestic wind power development and the European wind power over the years previous experience has many similarities, the lessons of others should be the experience of others to avoid them.Market changes in temperature is not only to meet the national energy demand for wind energy development strategy and clean environment, but also is affected by the large international wind energy market ups and downs.On policy incentives and measures, want to have the stability of the industrial guidance policy, guide the rational development of upstream and downstream enterprises.So-called rapid expansion and rapid spike type of bigger and stronger development models are not suitable for large investment, high-tech industries such as wind power, and present dilemma of some enterprises also fully illustrates this point.On this issue, Germany's new energy policy and development idea is worth studying and using for reference, it not only ensures the German wind energy for healthy and stable development, at the same time cultivating a new type of industry chain, to the international market output equipment and technology, as well as the related advanced business management pattern.Germany's new energy is the electronic, electrical, mechanical, chemical, pharmaceutical after another with super competitive industry.
Besides national stable incentive policies and market structure, a wind power enterprises to achieve development, depends on the two core factors, namely financing environment and the competitiveness of core technology.Companies with good financing channels is the inevitable requirement of solution to industrial investment.Wind power technology and modern high-tech product is a traditional industry of double reflected, but as for the spare parts are traditional industrial technology, such as gear box, generator, blades, controller, etc., but for whole has become a high-tech product, so its core technology is the whole matching technology.The input of the wind turbines is changing and the bad, natural environment decided by all the year round, and its output requirements must be stable and friendly, this needs to be between the poor and the friendly to achieve equivalent transformation of mechanical energy into electrical energy.
In addition, a stable and healthy development of the enterprise must have a core technology competitiveness, to provide high quality products.In domestic and international wind power market is the changes in temperature change, walk in the process of undulating, would most likely go on this.Only those with core technology competitiveness, to provide quality products and services of enterprise to occupy the market, through the cold winter, usher in a new round of spring.In recent years at home and abroad is to prove it.